Pisum Sativum, peas, snow peas, sugar snap peas

Pisum Sativum, peas, snow peas, sugar snap peas

Pisum sativum

Short-term cash crop. High forage yield in relatively short growth period. High nutritive value. Protein-rich. Highly acceptable feed for different classes of stock. Good intake characteristics.

The seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10 °C (50 °F), with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F). They do not thrive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates, but do grow well in cooler, high altitude, tropical areas. Many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting.  Pea plants can self-pollinate.

Pea pods are botanically fruit,  since they contain seeds and developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams.

Rapid-growing, glabrous annual with angular or roundish hollow stems covered with a waxy bloom.  The plants are tap-rooted, l m or more in depth, with numerous lateral roots. On each plant, inflorescences comprising one or two self-fertile flowers are borne on the end of axillary peduncles. Flower colour differs according to cultivar with white, pink, lavender, blue and purple represented. Pods containing several seeds, flattened when young but becoming roundish later, are dehiscent along two sides. Seeds range in colour from dun to brown and may be mottled.

Sugar Snap Peas –Super Sugar Snap ( liked this one) 

The best variety of sugar snaps to eat whole when peas are round and ripe and pod walls are sweet, thick and juicy – you’ll be tempted to eat them all right off the plants! Super Sugar Snap vines grow 5 feet tall with larger, longer pods than other snap peas, good heat tolerance, plus pea roll and powdery mildew resistance. Tops for vigor, productivity and melt-in-your-mouth sweet taste, Super Sugar Snaps are wonderful eating raw or very quickly cooked.

(Resistant to pea leaf roll & powdery mildew)

Edible Pod Snow Peas Oregon Giant 

Oregon Giant bears huge yields of sweet, exceptionally large, 5 inch crispy flat pods on sturdy short vines. These are the finest tasting, most vigorous snow peas you’ll find, bred at Oregon State University especially for fresh harvesting with sweet flavor and extra crunchy texture. Use them for colorful tasty stir fries or eat the juicy pods raw. An especially rewarding crop to plant and enjoy with children who will happily snack on them all day!

(Resistant to powdery mildew, enation mosaic and common wilt)


Date Planted

2019, May 18

One plant self seeded and in mid May is already producing peas.

2018 , April 19 

Sugar Snap Peas Super Sugar Snap

Edible Pod Snow Peas Oregon Giant

2017 , Spring 

June 11, 2017. Few days after planting

Purchase Info

June 7, 2017 Brugge Belgium. One plant 1.45 e.

Renee’s Garden 2018


Progress

Planted June 9,2017 – plant did not survive

Planted April 19, 2018

plants June 5. 2018

Diseases and Problems

The main threat is ‘damping-off’ of seedlings but this is controllable by a fungicide seed dressing. The use of certified disease-free seed will prevent other seedling diseases such as foot rots (Fusarium spp. and Ascochytaspp.). Also, the chosen cultivars should be resistant to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi) and downy mildew (Peronospora viciae) since there are no effective fungicide treatments available.

The most significant pests are pigeons and rooks which may be particularly troublesome at sowing or seedling emergence. The pea and bean weevil (Sitona lineatus) and aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are potentially damaging pests

Additionally, insects such as the pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus) can damage peas and other pod fruits. The pea leaf weevil is native to Europe, but has spread to other places such as Alberta, 

Canada. They are about 3.5 millimetres (0.14 in)—5.5 millimetres (0.22 in) long and are distinguishable by  three light-coloured stripes running length-wise down the thorax.

The weevil larvae feed on the root nodules of pea plants, whichare essential to the

plants’ supply of nitrogen, and thus diminish leaf and stem growth. Adult weevils feed on the leaves and create a notched, “c-shaped” appearance on the outside of the leaves.

Sugar Snap Peas –Super Sugar Snap

(Resistant to pea leaf roll & powdery mildew)

Edible Pod Snow Peas Oregon Giant

(Resistant to powdery mildew, enation mosaic and common wilt)


Cultivation

Sugar Snap Peas –Super Sugar Snap

START SEEDS OUTDOORS

In early to mid-spring, plant peas in full sun in well-worked, fertile soil. Sow seeds 1 inch deep and 2 to 3 inches apart in wide rows or bands 3 inches across, spacing the wide rows 2 feet apart. Provide supports for these 5 foot vines at planting time. Protect from marauding birds with netting or floating row covers if necessary. Wet and cold early spring weather may affect germination so if first sowing doesn’t germinate evenly, replant right away as new seedlings catch up quickly. Sow again for a fall crop about 2 1/2 months before first expected fall frost.

HARVEST AND USE

Harvest only when peas are mature and round in the thick-walled, juicy pods for the best developed flavor. Savor their sweet crunch fresh from the garden (kids especially love them!) as a snack or slice into salads. To cook quickly, pull strings from pods and sauté in a little oil just until pods turn a deeper green color.

GROWING NOTES

Use netting or wire trellis to support these heavy bearing vines for easy picking. Turn a sprinkling of bone meal and wood ashes into the soil before planting. Keep pea vines well weeded and watered and mulch to conserve moisture. Water at the base of the plants to avoid mildew.

Plant In

Sun/Shade

Planting Depth

Space Seeds

Days To Germinate

Days To Harvest

Mar. – May
July – Aug.
Full sun
1 inch
2 – 3 inches
7 – 10 days
Approx. 62

Edible Pod Snow Peas Oregon Giant

START SEEDS OUTDOORS

In early spring, as soon as soil can be worked, plant peas in full sun in well-worked, fertile soil. Sow seeds 1 inch deep and 2 to 3 inches apart. Sow seeds in wide rows or bands 3 inches across, spacing the wide rows 2 feet apart. Provide supports for these 2 1/2 foot vines at planting time. Protect from marauding birds with netting or floating row covers if necessary. If first sowing doesn’t germinate evenly, replant right away as new seedlings catch up quickly. Sow again for a fall crop about 2 1/2 months before first expected fall frost.

GROWING NOTES

Use netting or wire trellis or short tree branches stuck into the ground to support these heavy bearing vines for easy picking. Turn a sprinkling of bone meal and wood ashes into the soil before planting. Keep pea vines well weeded and watered, and mulch to conserve moisture.

HARVEST AND USE

Pick peas frequently when pods are fully formed but still flat with tiny immature peas. Snow peas are delicious in stir fries with ginger, soy sauce and garlic, but cook very quickly, just until they turn a deeper green color. Or enjoy the juicy pods as you pick them fresh from the vines.

Plant In

Sun/Shade

Planting Depth

Space Seeds

Days To Germinate

Days To Harvest

Mar – May
July – Aug
Full sun
1 inch
2 – 3 inches
7 – 10 days
Approx. 60

General:

Upright growth form with tangled vegetation, though late-maturing types are more prostrate than early-maturing types. Growth period of 12-18 weeks depending upon cultivar. In temperate areas, most vigorous growth from spring-sowing. Lodging can occur with increasing maturity, particularly under wet conditions. Generally grows best between 100C and 200C. Intolerant of drought which has a particularly adverse effect on production if it occurs at flowering.  Requires free-draining soils since intolerant of waterlogging. Sandy or medium-loam, moderately fertile soils are particularly suitable. Soil pH 6.0 to 7.0 but not overlimed since this will result in manganese deficiency (marsh spot) especially organic soils.  Rhizobial inoculation of seed was beneficial to nodulation, plant growth and nitrogen fixation on acid soils where peas had not been previously grown.  Well-cultivated, fine but firm seed bed required to promote rapid root and plant development. Over-compaction must be avoided.

Place in rotation
Can be included anywhere in a rotation. A spring-sown crop provides entry for a late-summer/early autumn grass sow-out, a winter cereal or a forage brassica catch crop (Whytock and Frame, 1985a). In very favourable areas there may be a chance of growing a second crop of forage peas in the same year, particularly if an early-maturing cultivar is sown. To avoid the risk of disease build-up, e.g. Sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia trifoliorum) peas should not be grown on the same land more often than one year in five.
Season of growth
In temperate areas, spring/early summer for early-sown crops, summer/autumn for later-sown crops. Grown in winter when grown as a cool-season crop in warm, temperate areas.
Sowing depth and soil cover

Ideally drilled at 7.5 cm depth on a level seed-bed so that after soil consolidation by rolling, seeds are at 3 to 5 cm depth. Drill rows are usually 15-20 cm apart.

Sowing time and rate

Spring sowing optimal when soil temperature has reached 7-80C. Risk of drought with summer sowing. Winterhardy types can be sown in autumn in winter-mild areas, e.g. southern Europe. Seed rates are variable, being influenced by seed size (and cost of seeds), but 100-125 kg/ha is typical. A target plant population for pure-sown stands is 70-80 plants/m2. Pure-sown peas can be undersown with a grass seed mixture where leafless or semi-leafless peas are used since they have better standing ability and allow more light penetration to the base of the stand than leafy cultivars. However, it is much more common to undersow arable silage, e.g. using 40-60 kg/ha peas plus 60-100 kg/ha spring barley (Whytock and Frame, 1985b); vetches (Vicia sativa) may also be included at 10-30 kg/ha. Forage pea/triticale mixtures may also be used.

Number of seeds per kg

2700 to 4500.

Seed treatment before sowing

A fungicide seed dressing is advisable to prevent ‘damping-off’ of seedlings by Pythium spp.

Nutrient requirements

The main requirement is for phosphate and potash application at rates dependent on the soil P and K status; on fertile soils, dressings of 25-50 kg/ha each of P2O5 and K2O are typical. If broadcast, fertilizer requires to be incorporated into the soil, or if drilled, placed near the seeds, because of the limited root development of peas. However, seeds should not be in contact with fertilizer because of the risk of scorch damage to the seedlings. A ‘starter’ dressing of 25 kg N/ha is sometimes applied to encourage rapid initial growth. For arable silage, 60-80 kg N/ha and 40-50 kg/ha each of P2O5 and K2O are typical rates for soils of moderate fertility status.

Ability to compete with weeds

Initially poor especially in cold springs, but competitive once full canopy achieved.

Tolerance of herbicides

Tolerates ‘legume-safe’ herbicides such as MCPB. Herbicide choice determined by cultivar since there is variation in leaf wax among cultivars.

Seedling vigour

Strong.

Vigour of growth

Vigorous growth towards maturity particularly when sown in early season.

Nitrogen-fixing ability

Estimates vary but usually amounts up to 70 kg N/ha cited (La Rue and Patterson, 1981). However, Kucey (1989) recorded 117 kg N/ha in western Canada.Using a total N difference method (N yield of peas minus N yield of non-N-fixing crops), Sparrow et al., (1993) reported amounts of 130-150 kg N/ha in Alaska, USA.

Dry matter yields

Yields up to 9 t/ha DM, equivalent to circa 50 t/ha fresh material, obtainable in the UK. Optimal yield is when crop flowering and lower pods fully formed though still at the flat pod stage (12-18 weeks dependent on maturity type). Delay beyond this stage gives little further increase in yield because of senescence of lower stem and leaves. In the UK, Fraser et al. (2000) obtained 5.39 t/ha DM at 10 weeks, 6.17 t/ha at 12 weeks and 5.60 at 14 weeks with cv. Magnus. Yields of 4.5-6.0 t/ha DM were recorded in Cyprus (Papastylianou, 1990). In Alaska the DM yields were 4-9 t/ha on neutral soils and 3-5 t/ha on acid soils, rhizobial seed inoculation being beneficial on acid soils where peas not grown before (Sparrow et al., 1993). In other work there, peas yielded 2.5 t/ha at flowering and 7 t/ha at mature pod stage (Brundage et al., 1979). At two sites in Alberta, Canada pea monocultures yielded 6.18-6.55 t/ha DM while in cereal/pea mixtures total yields ranged between 4.53 and 12.30 t/ha DM with pea contributions of 38-86% (Berkenkamp and Meeres, 1987).


Feeding value

Valuable source of protein. A typical analysis of the cut material prior to ensiling is: crude protein, 16-20%; DOMD, i.e. proportion of digestible organic matter in the dry matter 60-65%; and metabolizable energy (ME), 10.0-10.5 MJ/kg DM. Delay in harvesting beyond the flat pod stage results in reduced digestibility and overall feeding value. Conversely, earlier harvesting gives a high-quality forage but at the expense of production. Arable silage will generally have lower crude protein (10-14%), DOMD (58-63%) and ME (9.0-10.0) though these values can be higher depending on the pea cultivar chosen and its contribution but also on the cereal species and cultivar, particularly its straw length, a long length being advantageous.


Nitrogen-fixing ability

Peas, like many legumes, contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).The chemical reaction is:

{\displaystyle N_{2}+8H^{+}+8e^{-}\to 2NH_{3}+H_{2}}N_{2}+8H^{+}+8e^{-}\to 2NH_{3}+H_{2}

Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH4+), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction:

{\displaystyle NH_{3}+H^{+}\to NH_{4}^{+}}NH_{3}+H^{+}\to NH_{4}^{+}

This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for peas and many legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins. All proteins contain nitrogenous amino acids. Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, peas and many legumes are among the best sources of plant protein.

When a pea plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops


Nutritional value

Peas are starchy, but high in fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and lutein. Dry weight is about one-quarter protein and one-quarter sugar. Pea seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals and inhibit linoleic acid oxidation

Peas, green, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 339 kJ (81 kcal)
Carbohydrates
14.45 g
Sugars 5.67 g
Dietary fiber 5.1 g
Fat
0.4 g
Protein
5.42 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.

beta-carotene
lutein zeaxanthin
(5%)

38 μg

(4%)

449 μg

2477 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(23%)

0.266 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)

0.132 mg

Niacin (B3)
(14%)

2.09 mg

Vitamin B6
(13%)

0.169 mg

Folate (B9)
(16%)

65 μg

Vitamin C
(48%)

40 mg

Vitamin E
(1%)

0.13 mg

Vitamin K
(24%)

24.8 μg

Minerals
Calcium
(3%)

25 mg

Iron
(11%)

1.47 mg

Magnesium
(9%)

33 mg

Manganese
(20%)

0.41 mg

Phosphorus
(15%)

108 mg

Potassium
(5%)

244 mg

Sodium
(0%)

5 mg

Zinc
(13%)

1.24 mg

  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database